What is Bone Grafting?

When an individual is missing teeth, the jaw bone around the missing teeth will go through atrophy and is reabsorbed. Patients in these circumstances will have minimal bone that will not be able to support a dental implant, which means they will not be ideal candidates for dental implants.

Bone grafting enables bone to be replaced where it is missing as well as promoting new bone growth. This allows dental professionals who are qualified to administer dental implants the ability to administer implants that are the right width and length, which will provide patients with restored function where there was bone loss.

Why Would an Indiviudal Need a Bone Graft?

If an individual wants to have dental implants, but does not have enough bone to support the implant, then he or she may need to have a bone graft. When tooth loss has occurred, dental bone graft surgery will restore bone to its previous state. An indiviudal may also need a bone graft to ensure bone structure is maintained after a tooth has been extracted.

The restoration and maintenance of facial bone structure is vital for many reasons. There are several dental procedures that will require a bone graft, which includes dental implants. These procedures will work best when the bone is restored to its original dimension.

All You Need to Know About Bone Grafting

The body uses cells in the bloodstream to constantly enter tissue and eliminate any cells that are damaged and replace them with healthy cells. With bone grafting surgery, there is a framework of material that is placed where there is missing bone. A bone graft procedure will enable the cells to enter and start to rebuild missing bone. In time, the cells will restructure the grafting material into a functioning bone.

What is Bone Graft Material and Where Does it Come From?

Material that is used in bone grafting comes from many sources. The most common materials that are used in bone graft surgeries are autograft bone, allograft bone, and xenograft bone.

Autograft Bone Material

Autograft bone is material that is extracted from another area in an indiviudal’s body, which is then transplanted into the site that will be treated. This is an ideal material to use during a bone graft because it is comprised of the indiviudal’s own cells, which means the material will not pose a risk for the transmission of diseases. The only downside to autograft bone graft material is there will need to be an additional surgical procedure. Furthermore, there may not be enough bone available from the extraction area.

Allograft Bone Material

Allograft bone is material that was extracted from an organ donor. This material is medically processed to make certain it is safe. An advantage of allograft bone is that it is easily available. In addition, an individual who uses allograft bone will not need to have a second surgical procedure. Clinical trials have reported that allograft bone has an outstanding safety record. Allogenic bone material is not able to make new bone, so it is used a framework that is placed over bone from adjacent bony walls that will be able to grow and produce new bone.

Xenograft Bone Material

Xenograft bone is commonly used for a ridge preservation graft. The xenograft material is taken from another species, which will usually be a bovine bone (a cow bone). The bone is taken from a healthy cow and medically processed with a freeze drying procedure, which will effectively sterilize the bone and preserve the mineral content.

Bone Graft Substitues

There are also bone graft substitues that are used, which are synthetic materials that have been proven to be safe and effective. Bone substitutes that are used during a bone graft include demineralized bone matrix/demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft, graft composites, and bone morphogenetic proteins.

Demineralized Bone Matrix/Demineralized Freeze-Dried Bone Allograft

An allograft bone is used for this material. After the bone is processed, collagen, proteins, and growth factors are taken from the bone. The material comes in many forms, which include gel, chips, putty, or powder.

Graft Composites

This material is made of other bone graft material as well as growth factors. Combinations that are used in graft composites can include:

Bone Morphogenetic Proteins

  • Collagen and ceramic composite that produces a close resemblance to the composition of the natural bone;
  • Demineralized bone matrix and bone marrow cells that will promote new bone growth;
  •  Collagen, ceramic, and autograft.

This synthetic material is made of proteins that are naturally found in the body, which are known to stimulate bone formation and healing.

For those who are interested in bone grafting and want to find out more information, contact us today!